Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection presenting as encephalitis in seronegative adults in the context of solid organ transplantation is rarely reported. EBV seroconversion illnesses in the adult population after organ transplantation are quite uncommon. This report describes a case of encephalitis due to EBV infection after liver transplantation in an adult patient. The patient was seronegative for EBV pretransplant. She showed persistent viral replication indicated by high levels of EBV DNA in the serum, which raised concerns for future development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. The report discusses the management of such patients, awareness of EBV infection and earlier diagnosis by use of EBV PCR in adult immunocompromised individuals where infection may cause particular problems.
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