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Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours
  1. Andrew D Hopper1,
  2. Mustafa Jalal1,
  3. Alia Munir2
  4. on behalf of Sheffield Teaching Hospitals European Neuroendocrine Tumour Centre
  1. 1 Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK
  2. 2 Department of Endocrinology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Andrew D Hopper, Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK; andydhopper{at}


The incidence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNET) is rising mainly due to the increased use of cross-sectional imaging. Although many PNETs are asymptomatic and non-functioning, the overall 5-year survival is still less than 50%. In this article, we review the advances in diagnosis, classification and staging of PNET that have evolved with the development of new cross-sectional imaging methods and biopsy techniques. With accurate classification, evidence-based, individualised prognostic outcomes and treatments are able to be given which are also discussed.

  • pancreatic cancer
  • pancreatic disorders
  • pancreatic tumours
  • pancreatic islet cell
  • pancreatic endocrine tumour
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  • Contributors ADH designed and drafted the original manuscript. MJ and AM reviewed and updated subsequent and final drafts for important intellectual content of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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