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Large-duct cholangiopathies: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment
  1. Shyam Menon1,2,
  2. Andrew Holt1
  1. 1 Department of Hepatology and Liver Transplantation, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2 Department of Gastroenterology, The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Shyam Menon, Department of Gastroenterology, The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton WV10 0QP, UK; shyam.menon{at}


Cholangiopathies describe a group of conditions affecting the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree. Impairment to bile flow and chronic cholestasis cause biliary inflammation, which leads to more permanent damage such as destruction of the small bile ducts (ductopaenia) and biliary cirrhosis. Most cholangiopathies are progressive and cause end-stage liver disease unless the physical obstruction to biliary flow can be reversed. This review considers large-duct cholangiopathies, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, ischaemic cholangiopathy, portal biliopathy, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and Caroli disease.

  • primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • biliary cirrhosis
  • biliary strictures
  • portal hypertension
  • endoscopic retrograde pancreatography

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  • Contributors Both SM and AH have been involved in planning, research and preparing the manuscript.

  • Funding Neither SM nor AH has received any funding for this review.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

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