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Side effects of drug treatments for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: current controversies
  1. Anjan Dhar1,
  2. Frances Maw2,
  3. Helen Jane Dallal1,
  4. Stephen Attwood3
  1. 1 Gastroenterology, County Durham & Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, Darlington, UK
  2. 2 Pharmacy, County Durham and Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, Darlington, Darlington, UK
  3. 3 Durham University, Durham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Anjan Dhar, Gastroenterology, County Durham & Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, Darlington DL14 6AD, UK; adhar{at}


The two main drugs used in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists and both these agents have been implicated in a number of adverse effects, leading to considerable controversies related to their long-term use. This paper is aimed at a critical review of the published literature and the clinical significance of these reported side effects, most of which are associations rather than causal.

  • acid-related diseases
  • adverse drug reactions
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease

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  • Contributors AD, HJD and FM all contributed to the writing of the manuscript. AD revised the manuscript and is the senior author. SA provided a critique and contributed suggestions for improvement. AD is responsible for the overall content and is guarantor for the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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