Background Sequential drug treatment with biological agents in ulcerative colitis (UC) is becoming increasingly complex. There are few studies comparing head-to-head outcomes in second-line treatments. The study assesses whether using anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-α therapy following the α4β7 integrin blocker vedolizumab (VDZ) or VDZ after an anti-TNF has more favourable clinical outcomes in UC in a real-world outpatient setting.
Methods Patients with UC who were exposed to first-line anti-TNF (adalimumab or infliximab) or VDZ who subsequently switched to the alternate class between May 2013 and August 2020 were identified by reviewing patient databases at 10 hospitals. Data were collected retrospectively using patient records. Baseline demographics, disease activity indices, biochemical markers, endoscopic Mayo score, colectomy rates, treatment persistence and urgent hospital utilisation composite endpoint (UHUC) rates were examined over a 52-week period.
Results Second-line week 52 treatment persistence was higher in the VDZ group (71/81, 89%) versus the anti-TNF group (15/34, 44%; p=0.0001), as were week 52 colectomy-free survival (VDZ: 77/80, 96%, vs anti-TNF: 26/32, 81%; p=0.009), week 52 UHUC survival (VDZ: 68/84, 81%, vs anti-TNF: 20/34, 59%; p=0.002) and week 52 corticosteroid-free clinical remission (CFCR) rates (VDZ: 22/34, 65%, vs anti-TNF: 4/20, 20%; p=0.001).
Conclusion Compared with second-line anti TNF usage, the VDZ second-line cohort had significantly higher 52-week treatment persistence, UHUC survival, higher colectomy-free survival rates and higher week 52 CFCR. These data suggest that VDZ is an effective biologic in UC as a second-line therapy after anti-TNF exposure. It highlights the effect of biological order on clinically important outcomes.
- IBD clinical
- ulcerative colitis
- inflammatory bowel disease
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request. Deidentified participant data are available on reasonable request. This can be requested by email to Dr Charles Miller (firstname.lastname@example.org)
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Contributors SB, CMi and HK were responsible for the original concept and planning of the study. CMi, HK, SHL, ES, AB, AS, DK, NT, MTS, STR, IK, SPo, MP and JF performed the data collection and analysis. CMi performed the data analysis and drafted the manuscript. PH, RV, ES, SM, FR, SM, IP, MAS, KBK, ELJ, CMu, MJC, SPe, MW, PD, CO and SB critically reviewed and revised the manuscript. SB is the senior author on the paper and is the guarantor of the article.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests SB has acted as an advisor for Takeda, Johnson & Johnson, Sublimity Therapeutics, Tillotts and Janssen. MAS served as a speaker, a consultant and/or advisory board member for Janssen, Sandoz, Takeda, MSD, Falk, Samsung Bioepis, Galapagos and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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