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Contributors KMW primarily authored the manuscript, AJM was senior author, edited manuscript and contributed particularly to the sections on novel haemostatic modalities. AJS edited the manuscript and contributed particularly to the risk assessment and variceal bleeding sections.
Competing interests AJM has received fees for consultancy from Cook and Boston Scientific. Departmental funding for training from Cook, Boston Scientific and Olympus.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.