Obesity has reached epidemic levels in the United Kingdom. Obesity is associated with important gastrointestinal and hepatic complications which are common and can present sooner than cardiometabolic disease but often the underlying obesity remains untreated. Given that gastroenterologists and hepatologists will be at the forefront of obesity management we present an overview encompassing obesity pathophysiology, medical and surgical treatment options as well as the role of endobariatrics and the gut microbiome.
- obesity surgery
- morbid obesity
- gut hormones
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Contributors NH and HH developed the idea for the article. NH developed the structure for the article. SA wrote the article under the supervision of NH and HH. NH and HH edited the article.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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