Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the mucus layer above the gastric mucosa. While infection rates vary by region, the global prevalence is estimated at 50%. While asymptomatic carriage is common, infection can result in significant morbidity and mortality from complications including peptic ulcer disease, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. Paediatric and adult practices diverge due to differences in complication rate, symptomatology, practicalities with investigations and treatment options. Widespread use of standard antibiotic regimens has however resulted in a rapid global increase in antibiotic resistance and treatment failure in all ages. There is urgent need to optimise treatment regimens and maximise first-time eradication rates. This need is reflected in the latest guidelines from the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition for paediatric practice and the Maastricht Guidelines for adult practice. This article aims to provide a practical overview of the investigations and management of H. pylori by comparing and contrasting these guidelines.
- paediatric gastroenterology
- Helicobacter pylori
- Helicobacter therapy
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