Table 1

Risk factors for NAFLD

Age2Higher risk with increasing age
Metabolic syndrome (table 2)70–90% of patients have NAFLD
Metabolic syndrome is an independent predictor of fibrosis
Gender2Commoner in men
Women are at higher risk of advanced fibrosis67
Certain ethnic groups2High risk in Hispanics
Lower risk in blacks
Dietary factorsHigh cholesterol and saturated fats68
High fructose intake69
Low carbohydrates70
Caffeine may be protective71
Obstructive sleep apnoea72Increased risk of hepatic fibrosis73
Genetic factorsPatatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene74 75
  • NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.