Table 1

Endoscopic complications and perforation rates11–16

Diagnostic proceduresGeneral complicationsPerforation risk (%)
Oesphagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD)Bleeding
Pain
Risks of sedation (1%): hypotension, desaturation, bradycardia, hypertension, arrhythmia and aspiration
Perforation
0.01
Flexible sigmoidoscopy0.08
Diagnostic colonoscopy0.1–0.3
Small bowel enteroscopy0.3
Therapeutic proceduresSpecific complicationsPerforation risk
Oesophageal stenting 5–25
Mainly dependent on nature of stricture benign versus malignant, length of the stricture and the type of stent employed.
Oesophageal dilatation
▸ Benign strictures
▸ Malignant strictures
3
0.5
2–6
Polypectomy0.3–1
Balloon dilatation for colonic strictures4
Colonic stenting6
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)Pancreatitis (3–5%)
Cholangitis (2%)
Retroperitoneal perforation occurs in <1% of sphincterotomies
Percutaneous endoscopic fastrostomy (PEG)Overall complication rate (5–10%)
Serious complications (1.5–5%): aspiration, bleeding, Damage to internal organs, perforation, buried bumper syndrome, wound infections.
Minor complications (6%): feeding tube occlusion, peristomal pain
Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)Bleeding 1–45% (usually observed during procedure or during the first 24 h postprocedure)
Delayed bleeding reported in up to 13.9%
Stricture formation
0.3–0.4
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)4–10