InvestigationsPotential resultsClinical management plan: abnormal results
Symptom assessmentSpasm of the levator ani musclesTreatment for rectal spasm
  1. Pelvic floor and toileting exercises (page 18).

  2. Consider a low dose antidepressant.

  3. Consider a trial of an inhaled β 2 agonist.

  4. Consider referral to a specialist centre for biofeedback (page 18).

  5. Consider referral for acupuncture.