Table 1

ASA physical status classification system

ASA PS classificationDefinitionExamples, including but not limited to:
ASA IA normal healthy patientHealthy, non-smoking, no or minimal alcohol use
ASA IIA patient with mild systemic diseaseMild diseases only without substantive functional limitations. Examples include (but not limited to): current smoker, social alcohol drinker, pregnancy, obesity (30<BMI<40), well-controlled DM or HTN, mild lung disease.
ASA IIIA patient with severe systemic diseaseSubstantive function limitation; one or more moderate to severe diseases. Examples include (but not limited to): poorly controlled DM or HTN, COPD morbid obesity (BMI>40), active hepatitis, alcohol dependence or abuse, implanted pacemaker, moderate reduction or ejection fraction. ESRD undergoing regularly scheduled dialysis, history (>3 months of MI, CVA, TIA or CAD/stents).
ASA IVA patient with severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to lifeExamples include (but not limited to) recent (<3 months) MI, CVA, TIA or CAD/stents ongoing cardiac ischaemia or severe valve dysfunction, severe reduction or ejection fraction, sepsis DIC, ARD or ESRD not undergoing regularly scheduled dialysis.
ASA VA moribund patient who is not expected to surviveExamples include (but not limited to) ruptured abdominal/thoracic aneurysm, massive trauma, intracranial bleed with mass effect, ischaemic bowel in the face of significant cardiac pathology or multiple organ/systemic dysfunction.
ASA VIA patient declared brain dead whose organs are being removed for donor purposes
  • ARD, acute respiratory distress; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; DIC, disseminated intravascular coagulation; DM, diabetes mellitus; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; HTN, hypertension; MI, myocardial infarction; PS, physical status; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.