Table 12

Description and weight loss associated with endoscopic bariatric interventions27

Site of action Endoscopic intervention Endoscopic mechanism Description Excess weight loss at 6 or 12 months
StomachIntragastric balloonReduction in gastric volumeEndoscopic placement of balloons (Orbera or Reshape) that are filled with 400-700mls of blue saline which are removed after 6 months. 1–3 gas-filled balloons (obalon) are swallowed sequentially over a 12-month period and are removed after 3 months.25%–32% at 12 months (orbera)
27%–31% at 6 months (Reshape)
25% at 6 months (Obalon – not available on the NHS)
Endoscopic sleeve gastroplastyEndoscopic staples or sutures applied along greater curvature of the stomach to reduce gastric volume by~70%.28%–52% at 12 months
Aspiration therapyAspiration of gastric contentsEndoscopic placement of a specialised 26Fr gastrostomy tube that is used to flush water into the stomach before aspirating gastric contents 20–30 mins after a meal49%–54% at 12 months
Small intestineSmall bowel endobarrier sleeveBypass small bowelA 60 cm nutrient-impermeable sleeve that extends from the duodenal bulb to the distal jejunum and remains in for a maximum of 12 months35% at 12 months
Duodenal mucosal resurfacingDuodenal exclusionHydrothermal ablation using a 2 cm long balloon filled with 90°C heated fluid destroys superficial duodenal mucosa distal to the papilla of Vater up to the ligament of Treitz.2.5% at 12 months