Table 1

Hypermobility disorders

ConditionFeaturesDiagnosis
Joint hypermobility
  • Either localised, peripheral or generalised.

  • May be symptomatic or asymptomatic.

  • Often not pathological.

Hypermobile spectrum disorder
  • Generalised joint hypermobility (with allowances for age but not environmental factors).

  • Varied connective tissue and other symptoms (unclear evidence for true association).

  • Clinical constellation of symptoms but not fulfilling diagnostic criteria for hEDS.

  • Genetic basis unknown.

  • Molecular basis unknown.

  • Pathogenesis of associated symptoms unknown.

Hypermobile Ehlers Danlos syndrome
  • Generalised joint hypermobility (with allowances for age but not environmental factors).

  • Clinical features suggestive of a connective tissue disorder.

  • Female preponderance (unusual for a presumed autosomal dominant condition).

  • Other associated symptoms (unclear evidence for true association).

  • Clinical constellation of symptoms fulfilling diagnostic criteria for hEDS, some of which may suggest an acquired connective tissue disorder and some of which suggest a heritable connective tissue disorder.

  • Genetic basis unknown.

  • Molecular basis unknown.

  • Pathogenesis of associated symptoms unknown.

Other Ehlers Danlos syndrome typesJoint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue/blood vessel fragility.
  • Clinical constellation of symptoms.

  • Genetic basis known.

  • Molecular basis known.

  • Joint hypermobility syndrome has now been incorporated into hypermobile spectrum disorder or hEDS.1 2

  • hEDS, hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.