Table 3

Gastrointestinal side effects caused by medications used in patients with hypermobility

MedicationGI side effects
Treatment for PoTSFludrocortisoneNausea, GI discomfort, peptic ulcer
MidodrineNausea, GI discomfort, diarrhoea
IvabradineAbdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea
ClonidineConstipation, nausea, vomiting
PyridostigmineAbdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting
OctreotideCholelithiasis and cholecystitis, constipation, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, vomiting
Common medications used for gastrointestinal symptomsOpioidsNausea, vomiting, constipation, adrenal insufficiency
CyclizineAnorexia, palpitations, postural hypotension, urinary retention, agitation/euphoria
OndansetronConstipation, headache, abnormal sensation
Tricyclic antidepressantsDry mouth, nausea and constipation
Treatments for MCASAntihistaminesSedation, constipation, anticholinergic effects
Sodium cromoglycateNausea
  • GI, gastrointestinal; MCAS, mast cell activation syndrome; PoTS, postural tachycardia syndrome.