Differentiation between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functional gut disorders, and the determination of mucosal disease activity in established cases of IBD remain the cornerstones of disease diagnosis and management. Non-invasive, accurate biomarkers of gut inflammation are needed due to the variability of symptoms, the inaccuracies of currently available blood markers and the cost and invasive nature of endoscopy. Numerous biomarkers have been used and/or considered with some in current use. This article reviews the current evidence base around the indications for using biomarkers and their limitations, with a particular focus on faecal calprotectin.
- CROHN'S DISEASE
- ULCERATIVE COLITIS
- STOOL MARKERS
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Contributors SJW and MJB performed the literature searches to prepare this manuscript. They prepared the initial document, which was extensively edited by DRG and ABH. The document has also been reviewed by the IBD section committee and we thank the committee for their insightful and helpful comments on this manuscript.
Competing interests MJB has received honoraria for advisory board membership to Shield Pharma and Vifor Pharma. He has received grant support from Vifor Pharma. He has been supported for conference expenses by MSD, Vifor, AbbVie, Warner Chilcott and Allergan. None of these was directly related to the preparation of this work. DRG is funded by a Senior NRS Fellowship Award.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.